open access

Vol 76, No 7 (2018)
Original articles
Published online: 2018-02-02
Submitted: 2017-12-08
Accepted: 2018-02-02
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Cardiovascular risk assessment, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and lung function parameters

Maciej Polak, Agnieszka Doryńska, Krystyna Szafraniec, Andrzej Pająk
DOI: 10.5603/KP.a2018.0055
·
Kardiol Pol 2018;76(7):1055-1063.

open access

Vol 76, No 7 (2018)
Original articles
Published online: 2018-02-02
Submitted: 2017-12-08
Accepted: 2018-02-02

Abstract

Background: Decreased lung function is related to higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality. However, little is known about the relationship between the risk factors of CVD and pulmonary function.

Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, the total CVD risk, and pulmonary function.

Methods: The analysis included 4104 men and women aged 45 to 69 years, participants of the Polish part of the Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) Project, who provided valid measurements of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) using a Micro-Medical Microplus spirometer. The prevalence of CVD risk factors was defined as follows: hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg or taking hypertension medication), diabetes (glucose ≥ 7.1 mmol/L or self-reported diabetes), and hypercholesterolaemia (total cholesterol ≥ 5 mmol/L or low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ≥ 3 mmol/L or taking lipid lowering medication). Categories of total CVD risk were defined according to the 2016 European Guidelines on CVD prevention in clinical practice. The analysis of covariance was used to compare the lung function in the CVD risk factors and the total CVD risk categories.

Results: Mean values of FEV1 and FVC, adjusted for age and height, were significantly higher in men than in women (3.02 L; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.96–3.08 L vs. 2.52 L; 95% CI 2.45–2.63 L for FEV1 and 3.62 L; 95% CI 3.56–3.69 L vs. 3.05 L; 95% CI 2.98–3.12 L for FVC). Obesity was significantly associated with FVC in men and women; it was associated with FEV1 only in men. Compared with participants with normal body mass index, obese men and women had 280 mL and 112 mL lower mean FVC, respectively. Men without hypertension had almost 100 mL higher mean FVC than those with hypertension. The difference in FVC in women was approximately 80 mL. Diabetes was associated with lower values of FVC in both sexes and with FEV1 in women. A significant negative trend was observed in the mean FVC and FEV1 by the considered CVD risk categories.

Conclusions: Impaired lung function was associated with higher CVD risk, which could be explained partly by an adverse association between lung function and prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes.

Abstract

Background: Decreased lung function is related to higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality. However, little is known about the relationship between the risk factors of CVD and pulmonary function.

Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, the total CVD risk, and pulmonary function.

Methods: The analysis included 4104 men and women aged 45 to 69 years, participants of the Polish part of the Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) Project, who provided valid measurements of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) using a Micro-Medical Microplus spirometer. The prevalence of CVD risk factors was defined as follows: hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg or taking hypertension medication), diabetes (glucose ≥ 7.1 mmol/L or self-reported diabetes), and hypercholesterolaemia (total cholesterol ≥ 5 mmol/L or low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ≥ 3 mmol/L or taking lipid lowering medication). Categories of total CVD risk were defined according to the 2016 European Guidelines on CVD prevention in clinical practice. The analysis of covariance was used to compare the lung function in the CVD risk factors and the total CVD risk categories.

Results: Mean values of FEV1 and FVC, adjusted for age and height, were significantly higher in men than in women (3.02 L; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.96–3.08 L vs. 2.52 L; 95% CI 2.45–2.63 L for FEV1 and 3.62 L; 95% CI 3.56–3.69 L vs. 3.05 L; 95% CI 2.98–3.12 L for FVC). Obesity was significantly associated with FVC in men and women; it was associated with FEV1 only in men. Compared with participants with normal body mass index, obese men and women had 280 mL and 112 mL lower mean FVC, respectively. Men without hypertension had almost 100 mL higher mean FVC than those with hypertension. The difference in FVC in women was approximately 80 mL. Diabetes was associated with lower values of FVC in both sexes and with FEV1 in women. A significant negative trend was observed in the mean FVC and FEV1 by the considered CVD risk categories.

Conclusions: Impaired lung function was associated with higher CVD risk, which could be explained partly by an adverse association between lung function and prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes.

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Keywords

cardiovascular disease, risk factors, lung function, SCORE

About this article
Title

Cardiovascular risk assessment, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and lung function parameters

Journal

Kardiologia Polska (Polish Heart Journal)

Issue

Vol 76, No 7 (2018)

Pages

1055-1063

Published online

2018-02-02

DOI

10.5603/KP.a2018.0055

Bibliographic record

Kardiol Pol 2018;76(7):1055-1063.

Keywords

cardiovascular disease
risk factors
lung function
SCORE

Authors

Maciej Polak
Agnieszka Doryńska
Krystyna Szafraniec
Andrzej Pająk

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