open access

Vol 68, No 5 (2010)
Original articles
Published online: 2010-05-20
Submitted: 2012-12-28
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Inflammatory response and postoperative kidney failure in patients with diabetes type 2 or impaired glucose tolerance undergoing heart valve surgery

Dariusz Zakrzewski, Jadwiga Janas, Hanna Heretyk, Janina Stępińska
Kardiol Pol 2010;68(5):536-542.

open access

Vol 68, No 5 (2010)
Original articles
Published online: 2010-05-20
Submitted: 2012-12-28

Abstract

Background: Diabetes type 2 (DM) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are linked with a 3-fold increased risk of renal failure after heart valve surgery. The increase of proinflammatory cytokines is detected in patients with DM or IGT, moreover cardiac surgery promotes the proinflammatory response, which may be responsible for the development of postoperative kidney failure.
Aim: To assess the impact of perioperative pro- and antiinflammatory reaction after heart valve surgery and other clinical parameters on the risk of postoperative acute kidney injury in patients with DM or IGT.
Methods: Thirty patients with DM or IGT, without fibrate or statin treatment, with a mean LDL-cholesterol below 129 mg/dL, ejection fraction > 45%, in NYHA class II and III, referred for surgery due to acquired heart valve disease entered the study. Patients with acute or chronic inflammatory conditions, coronary artery disease or creatinine clearance below 50 mL/min were excluded. Serum creatinine, glycosylated hemoglobin, LDL-cholesterol and interleukin-10 as well as TNF-α were assessed before surgery. Interleukin-10 and TNF-α were also measured 4 hours after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Moreover, serum creatinine and hemoglobin were measured 18 ± 2 hours after surgery. The relationship between postoperative creatinine clearance, its postoperative change and other parameters was assessed. These parameters included: age, weight and body mass index, pre- and postoperative serum level of TNF-α and interleukin-10, preoperative concentration of LDL-cholesterol and glycosylated hemoglobin, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass and postoperative hemoglobin.
Results: The significant postoperative decrease of creatinine clearance was noted in the study group. Eight (27%) patients developed postoperative kidney failure, of them 2 (6.5%) patients required hemodialysis. The level of TNF-α and interleukin-10 increased significantly postoperatively. A significant correlation between duration of cardiopulmonary bypass and postoperative decrease of creatinine clearance was noted (R = 0.43, p = 0.02). A non-significant trend towards correlation between preoperative TNF-α and postoperative decrease of creatinine clearance was observed (R = -0.36, p = 0.05).
Conclusions: Postoperative kidney failure with the incidence of 27% is a frequent finding in patients with DM or IGT operated due to acquired heart valve disease. The postoperative proinflammatory response is not involved in the development of this complication. The correlation between postoperative decrease of creatinine clearance and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass was noted. The trend toward the link between postoperative kidney failure and preoperative proinflammatory status was seen.
Kardiol Pol 2010; 68, 5: 530-536

Abstract

Background: Diabetes type 2 (DM) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are linked with a 3-fold increased risk of renal failure after heart valve surgery. The increase of proinflammatory cytokines is detected in patients with DM or IGT, moreover cardiac surgery promotes the proinflammatory response, which may be responsible for the development of postoperative kidney failure.
Aim: To assess the impact of perioperative pro- and antiinflammatory reaction after heart valve surgery and other clinical parameters on the risk of postoperative acute kidney injury in patients with DM or IGT.
Methods: Thirty patients with DM or IGT, without fibrate or statin treatment, with a mean LDL-cholesterol below 129 mg/dL, ejection fraction > 45%, in NYHA class II and III, referred for surgery due to acquired heart valve disease entered the study. Patients with acute or chronic inflammatory conditions, coronary artery disease or creatinine clearance below 50 mL/min were excluded. Serum creatinine, glycosylated hemoglobin, LDL-cholesterol and interleukin-10 as well as TNF-α were assessed before surgery. Interleukin-10 and TNF-α were also measured 4 hours after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Moreover, serum creatinine and hemoglobin were measured 18 ± 2 hours after surgery. The relationship between postoperative creatinine clearance, its postoperative change and other parameters was assessed. These parameters included: age, weight and body mass index, pre- and postoperative serum level of TNF-α and interleukin-10, preoperative concentration of LDL-cholesterol and glycosylated hemoglobin, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass and postoperative hemoglobin.
Results: The significant postoperative decrease of creatinine clearance was noted in the study group. Eight (27%) patients developed postoperative kidney failure, of them 2 (6.5%) patients required hemodialysis. The level of TNF-α and interleukin-10 increased significantly postoperatively. A significant correlation between duration of cardiopulmonary bypass and postoperative decrease of creatinine clearance was noted (R = 0.43, p = 0.02). A non-significant trend towards correlation between preoperative TNF-α and postoperative decrease of creatinine clearance was observed (R = -0.36, p = 0.05).
Conclusions: Postoperative kidney failure with the incidence of 27% is a frequent finding in patients with DM or IGT operated due to acquired heart valve disease. The postoperative proinflammatory response is not involved in the development of this complication. The correlation between postoperative decrease of creatinine clearance and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass was noted. The trend toward the link between postoperative kidney failure and preoperative proinflammatory status was seen.
Kardiol Pol 2010; 68, 5: 530-536
Get Citation

Keywords

acquired heart valve disease; diabetes; postoperative kidney failure; cytokines

About this article
Title

Inflammatory response and postoperative kidney failure in patients with diabetes type 2 or impaired glucose tolerance undergoing heart valve surgery

Journal

Kardiologia Polska (Polish Heart Journal)

Issue

Vol 68, No 5 (2010)

Pages

536-542

Published online

2010-05-20

Bibliographic record

Kardiol Pol 2010;68(5):536-542.

Keywords

acquired heart valve disease
diabetes
postoperative kidney failure
cytokines

Authors

Dariusz Zakrzewski
Jadwiga Janas
Hanna Heretyk
Janina Stępińska

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