open access

Vol 68, No 7 (2010)
Original articles
Published online: 2010-07-20
Submitted: 2012-12-28
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Risk factors for carotid artery disease in patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting

Anna Drohomirecka, Łukasz Kołtowski, Paweł Kwinecki, Krzysztof Wronecki, Romuald Cichoń
Kardiol Pol 2010;68(7):794-799.

open access

Vol 68, No 7 (2010)
Original articles
Published online: 2010-07-20
Submitted: 2012-12-28

Abstract

Background: Carotid artery disease is thought to be a risk factor for neurological complications after cardiac surgery. Routine ultrasonographic screening is still not performed in every patient scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
Aim: To assess factors which may facilitate the selection for elective carotid artery ultrasound examination in patients undergoing CABG.
Methods: 682 patients (mean age 63.2 ± 8.7, range: 37–85 years) scheduled for CABG underwent preoperative duplex ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries. The following factors were collected and analysed: age, sex, LVEF, history of cerebrovascular accidents (stroke and/or TIA), myocardial infarction, and presence of hypertension, diabetes, unstable angina, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, left main stenosis ≥ 50%, lower-extremity peripheral arterial disease, and obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2). Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors for carotid artery stenosis.
Results: Internal or common carotid artery stenosis ≥ 50% was detected in 123 (18%) patients. Bilateral stenosis occurred in 35 (5.1%) patients, of whom 29 (4.5%) presented at least a monolateral vessel diameter reduction of ≥ 70%. History of cerebrovascular accidents, presence of lower-extremity peripheral arterial disease, and unstable angina were independent risk factors for at least monolateral vessel diameter reduction ≥ 50%. Although older age was also an independent predictor (Exp(B) = 1.035, p < 0.05), the ROC curve analysis did not reveal an age threshold above which the probability of detecting carotid disease increases significantly with satisfying sensitivity and specificity. The predictors of bilateral stenosis (at least one of them ≥ 70%) were a history of stroke, presence of left main disease, and lower-extremity peripheral arterial disease.
Conclusions: Carotid disease is common in patients scheduled for CABG. Preoperative carotid artery ultrasound examination should be performed, regardless of age, in all patients with more advanced symptomatic atherosclerosis, such as a history of cerebrovascular accidents, presence of lower-extremity peripheral arterial disease, left main disease, or unstable angina.
Kardiol Pol 2010; 68, 7: 789-794

Abstract

Background: Carotid artery disease is thought to be a risk factor for neurological complications after cardiac surgery. Routine ultrasonographic screening is still not performed in every patient scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
Aim: To assess factors which may facilitate the selection for elective carotid artery ultrasound examination in patients undergoing CABG.
Methods: 682 patients (mean age 63.2 ± 8.7, range: 37–85 years) scheduled for CABG underwent preoperative duplex ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries. The following factors were collected and analysed: age, sex, LVEF, history of cerebrovascular accidents (stroke and/or TIA), myocardial infarction, and presence of hypertension, diabetes, unstable angina, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, left main stenosis ≥ 50%, lower-extremity peripheral arterial disease, and obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2). Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors for carotid artery stenosis.
Results: Internal or common carotid artery stenosis ≥ 50% was detected in 123 (18%) patients. Bilateral stenosis occurred in 35 (5.1%) patients, of whom 29 (4.5%) presented at least a monolateral vessel diameter reduction of ≥ 70%. History of cerebrovascular accidents, presence of lower-extremity peripheral arterial disease, and unstable angina were independent risk factors for at least monolateral vessel diameter reduction ≥ 50%. Although older age was also an independent predictor (Exp(B) = 1.035, p < 0.05), the ROC curve analysis did not reveal an age threshold above which the probability of detecting carotid disease increases significantly with satisfying sensitivity and specificity. The predictors of bilateral stenosis (at least one of them ≥ 70%) were a history of stroke, presence of left main disease, and lower-extremity peripheral arterial disease.
Conclusions: Carotid disease is common in patients scheduled for CABG. Preoperative carotid artery ultrasound examination should be performed, regardless of age, in all patients with more advanced symptomatic atherosclerosis, such as a history of cerebrovascular accidents, presence of lower-extremity peripheral arterial disease, left main disease, or unstable angina.
Kardiol Pol 2010; 68, 7: 789-794
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Keywords

coronary artery surgery; carotid disease

About this article
Title

Risk factors for carotid artery disease in patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting

Journal

Kardiologia Polska (Polish Heart Journal)

Issue

Vol 68, No 7 (2010)

Pages

794-799

Published online

2010-07-20

Bibliographic record

Kardiol Pol 2010;68(7):794-799.

Keywords

coronary artery surgery
carotid disease

Authors

Anna Drohomirecka
Łukasz Kołtowski
Paweł Kwinecki
Krzysztof Wronecki
Romuald Cichoń

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