Vol 61, No 12 (2004)
Other
Published online: 2005-12-12
Submitted: 2012-12-28
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The effects of social intervention on detection and efficacy of treatment for arterial hypertension. Main results of the Polish Four Cities Programme

Tomasz Zdrojewski, Jerzy Głuszek, Anna Posadzy-Małaczyńska, Wojciech Drygas, Małgorzata Ornoch-Tabędzka, Wiktor Januszko, Andrzej Tykarski, Piotr Dylewicz, Magdalena Kwaśniewska, Barbara Krupa-Wojciechowska, Bogdan Wyrzykowski
Kardiol Pol 2004;61(12):553-558.
Vol 61, No 12 (2004)
Other
Published online: 2005-12-12
Submitted: 2012-12-28

Abstract

Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in the adult Polish population. Beside lipid disorders and cigarette smoking, hypertension represents the most important risk factor leading to cardiovascular complications. Representative studies conducted in Poland in 1994-2002 showed that in 2002 the number of respondents in the survey who stated they knew their own blood pressure values dropped by 3.5 million, compared with 1994. This decrease was predominantly seen in small towns and in the countryside. Preventive programmes should therefore be addressed mainly to the most vulnerable communities. Modern methods of social marketing may play a substantial role in the creation of a healthy lifestyle.
Aim: The aim of the Polish Four Cities Programme (PP4M), conducted in 2000-2001, was to develop the most effective methods of detection of and improvement in treatment for hypertension among the residents of small towns and rural areas. One of the programme tasks was to compare the effectiveness of a standard medical screening intervention with a similar approach combined with the use of social marketing methods.
Methods: The programme was conducted by an nterdisciplinary team in three small Polish towns - Kartuzy, Oborniki Wlkp. and Braniewo, as well as in one of the districts of a large city Ło´dz´ - Olecho´w. Medical intervention combined with social marketing (community intervention) took place in Oborniki Wlkp. whereas the residents of Kartuzy and Ło´dz´ were subjected only to the traditional medical intervention. Braniewo served as a control location - neither medical nor community intervention was implemented. Community intervention with elements of social marketing consisted of a three-month, intensive education and information campaign, initiated four weeks prior to the start of medical intervention. Epidemiological situation was assessed in all the four cities before and after the completion of the preventive interventions (screening), using representative surveys, with the objective to assess the changes in the awareness of one's own blood pressure values, detection of hypertension and knowledge concerning cardiovascular risk factors.
Results: In two survey locations - Kartuzy and Łódź - awareness of one's own blood pressure values after the medical intervention did not significantly change (61% and 67.6% at baseline versus 62.1% and 71.6% after the intervention, respectively). In contrast, social marketing activities conducted in Oborniki significantly increased this parameter from 61.5% to 79.8% (p<0.01). While medical intervention did not change the proportion of non-diagnosed hypertension in a small town (a non-significant decrease from 49% to 45% in Kartuzy), its effect in a large city was clearly visible (a decrease from 46% to 28% in Ło´dz´). In Oborniki Wlkp. (medical intervention combined with social marketing) the effects were the most noticeable - a reduction from 50% to 27% was achieved. The efficacy of hypertension treatment at baseline was low (4.7% in Kartuzy, 6.6% in Oborniki, and 6.5% in Ło´dz´), but it then improved significantly (a twofold increase in Kartuzy and Oborniki, and more than twofold increase in Ło´dz´). When the target value of blood pressure was set at 160/95 mmHg, the highest efficacy of hypotensive therapy was observed directly after the completion of medical and community intervention in Oborniki (an almost twofold increase in treatment efficacy).
Conclusions: 1. Medical intervention combined with a community intervention and marketing campaign leads to a statistically significant improvement in self-awareness of blood pressure values among residents of small towns. 2. Medical intervention combined with community intervention brings the detection rate of hypertension in small towns up to the level observed in large cities. 3. Medical intervention, especially when combined with community intervention, improves the efficacy of the treatment of hypertension, regardless of the size of agglomeration.

Abstract

Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in the adult Polish population. Beside lipid disorders and cigarette smoking, hypertension represents the most important risk factor leading to cardiovascular complications. Representative studies conducted in Poland in 1994-2002 showed that in 2002 the number of respondents in the survey who stated they knew their own blood pressure values dropped by 3.5 million, compared with 1994. This decrease was predominantly seen in small towns and in the countryside. Preventive programmes should therefore be addressed mainly to the most vulnerable communities. Modern methods of social marketing may play a substantial role in the creation of a healthy lifestyle.
Aim: The aim of the Polish Four Cities Programme (PP4M), conducted in 2000-2001, was to develop the most effective methods of detection of and improvement in treatment for hypertension among the residents of small towns and rural areas. One of the programme tasks was to compare the effectiveness of a standard medical screening intervention with a similar approach combined with the use of social marketing methods.
Methods: The programme was conducted by an nterdisciplinary team in three small Polish towns - Kartuzy, Oborniki Wlkp. and Braniewo, as well as in one of the districts of a large city Ło´dz´ - Olecho´w. Medical intervention combined with social marketing (community intervention) took place in Oborniki Wlkp. whereas the residents of Kartuzy and Ło´dz´ were subjected only to the traditional medical intervention. Braniewo served as a control location - neither medical nor community intervention was implemented. Community intervention with elements of social marketing consisted of a three-month, intensive education and information campaign, initiated four weeks prior to the start of medical intervention. Epidemiological situation was assessed in all the four cities before and after the completion of the preventive interventions (screening), using representative surveys, with the objective to assess the changes in the awareness of one's own blood pressure values, detection of hypertension and knowledge concerning cardiovascular risk factors.
Results: In two survey locations - Kartuzy and Łódź - awareness of one's own blood pressure values after the medical intervention did not significantly change (61% and 67.6% at baseline versus 62.1% and 71.6% after the intervention, respectively). In contrast, social marketing activities conducted in Oborniki significantly increased this parameter from 61.5% to 79.8% (p<0.01). While medical intervention did not change the proportion of non-diagnosed hypertension in a small town (a non-significant decrease from 49% to 45% in Kartuzy), its effect in a large city was clearly visible (a decrease from 46% to 28% in Ło´dz´). In Oborniki Wlkp. (medical intervention combined with social marketing) the effects were the most noticeable - a reduction from 50% to 27% was achieved. The efficacy of hypertension treatment at baseline was low (4.7% in Kartuzy, 6.6% in Oborniki, and 6.5% in Ło´dz´), but it then improved significantly (a twofold increase in Kartuzy and Oborniki, and more than twofold increase in Ło´dz´). When the target value of blood pressure was set at 160/95 mmHg, the highest efficacy of hypotensive therapy was observed directly after the completion of medical and community intervention in Oborniki (an almost twofold increase in treatment efficacy).
Conclusions: 1. Medical intervention combined with a community intervention and marketing campaign leads to a statistically significant improvement in self-awareness of blood pressure values among residents of small towns. 2. Medical intervention combined with community intervention brings the detection rate of hypertension in small towns up to the level observed in large cities. 3. Medical intervention, especially when combined with community intervention, improves the efficacy of the treatment of hypertension, regardless of the size of agglomeration.
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Keywords

blood pressure - hypertension - treatment - community intervention

About this article
Title

The effects of social intervention on detection and efficacy of treatment for arterial hypertension. Main results of the Polish Four Cities Programme

Journal

Kardiologia Polska (Polish Heart Journal)

Issue

Vol 61, No 12 (2004)

Pages

553-558

Published online

2005-12-12

Bibliographic record

Kardiol Pol 2004;61(12):553-558.

Keywords

blood pressure - hypertension - treatment - community intervention

Authors

Tomasz Zdrojewski
Jerzy Głuszek
Anna Posadzy-Małaczyńska
Wojciech Drygas
Małgorzata Ornoch-Tabędzka
Wiktor Januszko
Andrzej Tykarski
Piotr Dylewicz
Magdalena Kwaśniewska
Barbara Krupa-Wojciechowska
Bogdan Wyrzykowski

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