open access

Vol 64, No 6 (2006)
Other
Published online: 2006-06-27
Submitted: 2012-12-28
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Original article
Risk factors of atherosclerosis in premenopausal women with a sense of well-being. A pilot study

Rafał Łukaszewicz, Magdalena Łukaszewicz, Leszek Ceremużyńsk
Kardiol Pol 2006;64(6):573-580.

open access

Vol 64, No 6 (2006)
Other
Published online: 2006-06-27
Submitted: 2012-12-28

Abstract

Introduction: Women before menopause are thought to be relatively safe from cardiovascular disease due to the protective effects of oestrogens, although one may question this opinion with regards to women with many typical risk factors. However, because of the shortage of data concerning prevalence of risk factors in young women, it is not known whether this phenomenon is confined to a limited group or affects many women. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of either typical risk factors of atherosclerosis or emotional disturbances that might increase the probability of coronary artery disease in young women. Methods: The study group involved 62 premenopausal women with a sense of well-being (regular menstruations, activity of serum follicle stimulating hormone < 15 IU/L). Mean age of women was 43.5 years. Total cholesterol, LDL and HDL fractions, triglyceride, lipoprotein (a) and homocysteine concentrations were examined and body mass index was calculated. A psychological examination assessing depression and neuroticism intensity was also performed. Results: Total cholesterol concentration (mean values ± SD, expressed as mg%, percentage of abnormal results are given in brackets) was 206.3±35.8 (67.2), LDL cholesterol 124.3±30.2 (55.1), HDL cholesterol HDL 62.5±14.8 (6.9), triglyceride 101±60.1 (13.8), lipoprotein (a) 18.9±17.5 (44.8). Body mass index was 25.2±4.1 (41.3). History of smoking was positive in 27.4% and 6.5% of examined women had arterial hypertension. Coexistence of 4 to 5 aforementioned risk factors was noted in 27.4% of studied subjects. Mean homocysteine concentration was 10.7±2.1 µmol/L, while 41.3% of subjects had levels above the threshold of 11 µmol/l, commonly considered pathological. Symptoms of depression and neuroticism were seen in 30.5% and 22.5% of women, respectively. Conclusions: This pilot study of young women demonstrated that, in contrary to popular belief, this population is vulnerable to cardiovascular disease due to high prevalence of many risk factors.

Abstract

Introduction: Women before menopause are thought to be relatively safe from cardiovascular disease due to the protective effects of oestrogens, although one may question this opinion with regards to women with many typical risk factors. However, because of the shortage of data concerning prevalence of risk factors in young women, it is not known whether this phenomenon is confined to a limited group or affects many women. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of either typical risk factors of atherosclerosis or emotional disturbances that might increase the probability of coronary artery disease in young women. Methods: The study group involved 62 premenopausal women with a sense of well-being (regular menstruations, activity of serum follicle stimulating hormone < 15 IU/L). Mean age of women was 43.5 years. Total cholesterol, LDL and HDL fractions, triglyceride, lipoprotein (a) and homocysteine concentrations were examined and body mass index was calculated. A psychological examination assessing depression and neuroticism intensity was also performed. Results: Total cholesterol concentration (mean values ± SD, expressed as mg%, percentage of abnormal results are given in brackets) was 206.3±35.8 (67.2), LDL cholesterol 124.3±30.2 (55.1), HDL cholesterol HDL 62.5±14.8 (6.9), triglyceride 101±60.1 (13.8), lipoprotein (a) 18.9±17.5 (44.8). Body mass index was 25.2±4.1 (41.3). History of smoking was positive in 27.4% and 6.5% of examined women had arterial hypertension. Coexistence of 4 to 5 aforementioned risk factors was noted in 27.4% of studied subjects. Mean homocysteine concentration was 10.7±2.1 µmol/L, while 41.3% of subjects had levels above the threshold of 11 µmol/l, commonly considered pathological. Symptoms of depression and neuroticism were seen in 30.5% and 22.5% of women, respectively. Conclusions: This pilot study of young women demonstrated that, in contrary to popular belief, this population is vulnerable to cardiovascular disease due to high prevalence of many risk factors.
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About this article
Title

Original article
Risk factors of atherosclerosis in premenopausal women with a sense of well-being. A pilot study

Journal

Kardiologia Polska (Polish Heart Journal)

Issue

Vol 64, No 6 (2006)

Pages

573-580

Published online

2006-06-27

Bibliographic record

Kardiol Pol 2006;64(6):573-580.

Authors

Rafał Łukaszewicz
Magdalena Łukaszewicz
Leszek Ceremużyńsk

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