open access

Vol 66, No 3 (2008)
Other
Published online: 2008-03-21
Submitted: 2012-12-28
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Original articles
Early and late outcomes of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of cephalad arteries

Paweł Buszman, Marcin Dębiński, Agata Gruszka, Piotr Janas, Marek Król, Marek Kondys, Janusz Iwiński, Zofia Kazibutowska-Zarańska, Lech Cierpka, Michał Tendera
Kardiol Pol 2008;66(3):233-242.

open access

Vol 66, No 3 (2008)
Other
Published online: 2008-03-21
Submitted: 2012-12-28

Abstract

Background: Efficacy of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in prevention of stroke in patients with carotid artery stenosis has been confirmed in randomised trials. Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a routine clinical practice and recent results of CAS are not worse than CEA. Moreover, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) techniques allow other cephalad arteries to be dilated.
Aim: To assess early and long-term outcome of PTA of cephalad arteries and to determine risk factors of early and late major adverse cardiovascular and cerebral events (MACCE).
Methods: The study group consisted of 223 consecutive patients (151 males, 67.7%, mean age 65.3±8.6) in whom 256 PTA procedures of cephalad arteries were performed. Two hundred and forty-two internal carotid, 7 common carotid and 15 vertebral arteries were dilated. Thirty-four patients underwent one-stage carotid and coronary procedures, while in 46 patients one-stage carotid and peripheral procedures were performed. Neuroprotection with a distal protection device was used in 51.5% of cases. The procedures were divided into two groups: with high (n=181) and low (n=75) risk of cardiovascular events. Early and late events were recorded and analysed subsequently.
Results: In hospital 30-day MACCE occured in 12 (4.6%) patients, including 7 (2.7%) strokes, 3 (1.1%) myocardial infarctions and two (0.8%) deaths. Transient ischaemic attacks were observed in 8 patients, pulmonary oedema in 3 cases, as well as a single episode of retinal artery embolisation and acute renal insufficiency. The incidence of 30-day MACCE was not significantly higher in the high-risk group (6.07 vs. 1.33%; NS), but the risk of any adverse event was significantly higher (p=0.03). There was no difference in stroke incidence between procedures with or without neuroprotection (2.27 vs. 3.22%; NS). There was no difference in risk of MACCE between angioplasty of cephalad artery and one-stage cephalad and coronary artery angioplasty procedure (3.6 vs. 5.5%; NS). During 50.3±20 months of follow-up there were 16 (7.1%) deaths, 9 (3.5%) strokes and 6 (2.3%) restenoses confirmed angiographically. One-year total survival and one-year MACCE-free survival rates according to the Kaplan-Meier analysis were 94.9% and 89.0%, showing a trend towards better outcome in the low-risk group (F-Cox=2.46; p=0.19 and F-Cox=2.17; p=0.09 respectively).
Conclusions: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of cephalad arteries is safe and feasible, with a low periprocedural complication rate and good late outcome. Carotid artery stenting is an alternative method to CEA.

Abstract

Background: Efficacy of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in prevention of stroke in patients with carotid artery stenosis has been confirmed in randomised trials. Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a routine clinical practice and recent results of CAS are not worse than CEA. Moreover, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) techniques allow other cephalad arteries to be dilated.
Aim: To assess early and long-term outcome of PTA of cephalad arteries and to determine risk factors of early and late major adverse cardiovascular and cerebral events (MACCE).
Methods: The study group consisted of 223 consecutive patients (151 males, 67.7%, mean age 65.3±8.6) in whom 256 PTA procedures of cephalad arteries were performed. Two hundred and forty-two internal carotid, 7 common carotid and 15 vertebral arteries were dilated. Thirty-four patients underwent one-stage carotid and coronary procedures, while in 46 patients one-stage carotid and peripheral procedures were performed. Neuroprotection with a distal protection device was used in 51.5% of cases. The procedures were divided into two groups: with high (n=181) and low (n=75) risk of cardiovascular events. Early and late events were recorded and analysed subsequently.
Results: In hospital 30-day MACCE occured in 12 (4.6%) patients, including 7 (2.7%) strokes, 3 (1.1%) myocardial infarctions and two (0.8%) deaths. Transient ischaemic attacks were observed in 8 patients, pulmonary oedema in 3 cases, as well as a single episode of retinal artery embolisation and acute renal insufficiency. The incidence of 30-day MACCE was not significantly higher in the high-risk group (6.07 vs. 1.33%; NS), but the risk of any adverse event was significantly higher (p=0.03). There was no difference in stroke incidence between procedures with or without neuroprotection (2.27 vs. 3.22%; NS). There was no difference in risk of MACCE between angioplasty of cephalad artery and one-stage cephalad and coronary artery angioplasty procedure (3.6 vs. 5.5%; NS). During 50.3±20 months of follow-up there were 16 (7.1%) deaths, 9 (3.5%) strokes and 6 (2.3%) restenoses confirmed angiographically. One-year total survival and one-year MACCE-free survival rates according to the Kaplan-Meier analysis were 94.9% and 89.0%, showing a trend towards better outcome in the low-risk group (F-Cox=2.46; p=0.19 and F-Cox=2.17; p=0.09 respectively).
Conclusions: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of cephalad arteries is safe and feasible, with a low periprocedural complication rate and good late outcome. Carotid artery stenting is an alternative method to CEA.
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Keywords

percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of carotid arteries; carotid stenting; cephalad arteries

About this article
Title

Original articles
Early and late outcomes of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of cephalad arteries

Journal

Kardiologia Polska (Polish Heart Journal)

Issue

Vol 66, No 3 (2008)

Pages

233-242

Published online

2008-03-21

Bibliographic record

Kardiol Pol 2008;66(3):233-242.

Keywords

percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of carotid arteries
carotid stenting
cephalad arteries

Authors

Paweł Buszman
Marcin Dębiński
Agata Gruszka
Piotr Janas
Marek Król
Marek Kondys
Janusz Iwiński
Zofia Kazibutowska-Zarańska
Lech Cierpka
Michał Tendera

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