open access

Vol 76, No 9 (2018)
EHRA PRACTICAL GUIDE
Published online: 2018-09-07
Submitted: 2018-07-16
Accepted: 2018-07-16
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The 2018 European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation: executive summary

Jan Steffel, Peter Verhamme, Tatjana S. Potpara, Pierre Albaladejo, Matthias Antz, Lien Desteghe, Karl Georg Haeusler, Jonas Oldgren, Holger Reinecke, Vanessa Roldan-Schilling, Nigel Rowell, Peter Sinnaeve, Ronan Collins, A. John Camm, Hein Heidbüchel
DOI: 10.5603/KP.2018.0180
·
Pubmed: 30211938
·
Kardiol Pol 2018;76(9):1283-1298.

open access

Vol 76, No 9 (2018)
EHRA PRACTICAL GUIDE
Published online: 2018-09-07
Submitted: 2018-07-16
Accepted: 2018-07-16

Abstract

Poniższy tekst jest streszczeniem drugiej aktualizacji oryginalnego praktycznego przewodnika opublikowanego w 2013 roku. Leki przeciwkrzepliwe niebędące antagonistami witaminy K (NOAC) stanowią cenną alternatywę dla antagonistów witaminy K (VKA) w zapobieganiu udarom u pacjentów z migotaniem przedsionków (AF) i uznano je za leki preferowane, szczególnie dla osób rozpoczynających leczenie przeciwkrzepliwe. Zarówno lekarze, jak i pacjenci przyzwyczajają się do ich stosowania w praktyce klinicznej, istnieje jednak wiele nierozwiązanych kwestii dotyczących optymalnego stosowania tych leków w określonych sytuacjach klinicznych. Europejskie Stowarzyszenie Zaburzeń Rytmu Serca (EHRA, European Heart Rhythm Association) podjęło się koordynacji opracowania jednolitego sposobu komunikowania się z lekarzami na temat stosowania różnych preparatów NOAC. Grupa określiła 20 tematów zawierających konkretne scenariusze kliniczne, w odniesieniu do których sformułowano praktyczne wskazówki na podstawie dostępnych dowodów. Do problemów klinicznych należą: 1) odpowiednia kwalifikacja pacjentów do leczenia; 2) praktyczne schematy rozpoczynania oraz monitorowania terapii za pomocą NOAC; 3) zagwarantowanie przestrzegania zaleceń przyjmowania doustnych leków przeciwkrzepliwych; 4) zmiana schematów leczenia przeciwkrzepliwego; 5) farmakokinetyka oraz interakcje lekowe; 6) stosowanie NOAC u osób z przewlekłą chorobą nerek i zaawansowaną chorobą wątroby; 7) sposoby pomiaru efektu przeciwkrzepliwego NOAC; 8) pomiar stężenia NOAC w surowicy: rzadkie wskazania, środki ostrożności, potencjalne „pułapki”; 9) postępowanie w przypadku pomyłki w dawkowaniu; 10) postępowanie w przypadku (podejrzenia) przedawkowania bez krwawienia lub badania krzepnięcia wskazujące na potencjalne ryzyko krwawienia; 11) postępowanie w przypadku krwawienia w trakcie terapii za pomocą NOAC; 12) postępowanie u pacjentów poddanych planowym zabiegom chirurgicznym, procedurom inwazyjnym czy ablacji; 13) postępowanie u pacjentów wymagających pilnej interwencji chirurgicznej; 14) pacjenci z AF oraz chorobą wieńcową; 15) unikanie pomyłek w dawkowaniu NOAC w różnych wskazaniach; 16) kardiowersja u pacjenta leczonego NOAC; 17) AF u pacjentów z ostrym udarem mózgu leczonych NOAC; 18) NOAC w sytuacjach szczególnych; 19) leczenie przeciwkrzepliwe w przypadku AF u pacjentów z nowotworami złośliwymi; 20) optymalizacja leczenia za pomocą VKA. Dodatkowe informacje oraz materiały do pobrania, jak również karty leczenia przeciwkrzepliwego w kilku językach można znaleźć na stronie internetowej EHRA (www.NOACforAF.eu).

Abstract

Poniższy tekst jest streszczeniem drugiej aktualizacji oryginalnego praktycznego przewodnika opublikowanego w 2013 roku. Leki przeciwkrzepliwe niebędące antagonistami witaminy K (NOAC) stanowią cenną alternatywę dla antagonistów witaminy K (VKA) w zapobieganiu udarom u pacjentów z migotaniem przedsionków (AF) i uznano je za leki preferowane, szczególnie dla osób rozpoczynających leczenie przeciwkrzepliwe. Zarówno lekarze, jak i pacjenci przyzwyczajają się do ich stosowania w praktyce klinicznej, istnieje jednak wiele nierozwiązanych kwestii dotyczących optymalnego stosowania tych leków w określonych sytuacjach klinicznych. Europejskie Stowarzyszenie Zaburzeń Rytmu Serca (EHRA, European Heart Rhythm Association) podjęło się koordynacji opracowania jednolitego sposobu komunikowania się z lekarzami na temat stosowania różnych preparatów NOAC. Grupa określiła 20 tematów zawierających konkretne scenariusze kliniczne, w odniesieniu do których sformułowano praktyczne wskazówki na podstawie dostępnych dowodów. Do problemów klinicznych należą: 1) odpowiednia kwalifikacja pacjentów do leczenia; 2) praktyczne schematy rozpoczynania oraz monitorowania terapii za pomocą NOAC; 3) zagwarantowanie przestrzegania zaleceń przyjmowania doustnych leków przeciwkrzepliwych; 4) zmiana schematów leczenia przeciwkrzepliwego; 5) farmakokinetyka oraz interakcje lekowe; 6) stosowanie NOAC u osób z przewlekłą chorobą nerek i zaawansowaną chorobą wątroby; 7) sposoby pomiaru efektu przeciwkrzepliwego NOAC; 8) pomiar stężenia NOAC w surowicy: rzadkie wskazania, środki ostrożności, potencjalne „pułapki”; 9) postępowanie w przypadku pomyłki w dawkowaniu; 10) postępowanie w przypadku (podejrzenia) przedawkowania bez krwawienia lub badania krzepnięcia wskazujące na potencjalne ryzyko krwawienia; 11) postępowanie w przypadku krwawienia w trakcie terapii za pomocą NOAC; 12) postępowanie u pacjentów poddanych planowym zabiegom chirurgicznym, procedurom inwazyjnym czy ablacji; 13) postępowanie u pacjentów wymagających pilnej interwencji chirurgicznej; 14) pacjenci z AF oraz chorobą wieńcową; 15) unikanie pomyłek w dawkowaniu NOAC w różnych wskazaniach; 16) kardiowersja u pacjenta leczonego NOAC; 17) AF u pacjentów z ostrym udarem mózgu leczonych NOAC; 18) NOAC w sytuacjach szczególnych; 19) leczenie przeciwkrzepliwe w przypadku AF u pacjentów z nowotworami złośliwymi; 20) optymalizacja leczenia za pomocą VKA. Dodatkowe informacje oraz materiały do pobrania, jak również karty leczenia przeciwkrzepliwego w kilku językach można znaleźć na stronie internetowej EHRA (www.NOACforAF.eu).

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Keywords

doustne leki przeciwkrzepliwe niebędące antagonistami witaminy K; antagoniści witaminy K; migotanie przedsionków; udar mózgu

About this article
Title

The 2018 European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation: executive summary

Journal

Kardiologia Polska (Polish Heart Journal)

Issue

Vol 76, No 9 (2018)

Pages

1283-1298

Published online

2018-09-07

DOI

10.5603/KP.2018.0180

Pubmed

30211938

Bibliographic record

Kardiol Pol 2018;76(9):1283-1298.

Keywords

doustne leki przeciwkrzepliwe niebędące antagonistami witaminy K
antagoniści witaminy K
migotanie przedsionków
udar mózgu

Authors

Jan Steffel
Peter Verhamme
Tatjana S. Potpara
Pierre Albaladejo
Matthias Antz
Lien Desteghe
Karl Georg Haeusler
Jonas Oldgren
Holger Reinecke
Vanessa Roldan-Schilling
Nigel Rowell
Peter Sinnaeve
Ronan Collins
A. John Camm
Hein Heidbüchel

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